ACADEMIC RESEARCH

GLOSSARY

A

A-21 "Cost Principles for Educational Institutions," a circular published by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) that establishes the principles for determining the costs applicable to grants, contracts, and other government agreements with educational institutions (also known as Sponsored Projects).

AAALAC American Association for the Accreditation of Lab Animal Care

AASCU American Association of State Colleges and Universities

AFOSR Air Force Office of Scientific Research (DOD)

Allowable Costs Those categories of costs that can be charged to a grant, such as salaries and equipment. Certain types of costs, such as the cost of alcoholic beverages are not allowable and may not be charged to a contract or grant

AMA American Medical Association

American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU)

APLU - Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities

ASPR Armed Services Procurement Regulations

Audit A formal examination of an organization's or individual's accounts or financial situation. An audit may also include examination of compliance with applicable terms, laws, and regulations.

Award Funds that have been obligated by a funding agency for a particular project

 

B

BAA Broad Agency Announcement

Bequests A type of donation or gift. Bequests and gifts are awards given with few or no conditions specified. Gifts may be provided to establish an endowment or to provide direct support for existing programs. Frequently, gifts are used to support developing programs for which other funding is not available. The unique flexibility, or lack of restrictions, makes gifts attractive sources of support.

Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) An announcement of a federal agency's general research interests that invites proposals and specifies the general terms and conditions under which an award may be made.

Budget The detailed statement outlining estimated project costs to support work under a grant or contract.

Budget Period The interval of time into which the project period is divided for budgetary and funding purposes.

Budget Adjustment The act of amending the budget by moving funds from one category or line item to another.

 

C

CAS Cost Accounting Standards

CBD Commerce Business Daily

CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CFDA Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance

CFR Code of Federal Regulations

Challenge Grant A grant that provides monies in response to monies from other sources, usually according to a formula. A challenge grant may, for example, offer two dollars for every one that is obtained from a fund drive. The grant usually has a fixed upper limit, and may have a challenge minimum below which no grant will be made. This form of grant is fairly common in the arts, humanities, and some other fields, but is less common in the sciences. A challenge grant differs from a matching grant in at least one important respect: The amount of money that the recipient organization realizes from a challenge grant may vary widely, depending upon how successful that organization is in meeting the challenge. Matching grants usually award a clearly defined amount and require that a specified sum be obtained before any award is made.

Close Out The act of completing all internal procedures and sponsor requirements to terminate or complete a research project.

COB Close of Business

COGR Council on Governmental Relations

COI Conflict of Interest

Commerce Business Daily (CBD) Now FedBiz Opps

Community of Science (COS) The Community of Science is a web server containing information about scientific expertise, funded scientific research, and funding opportunities for research.

Consortium Agreement Group of collaborative investigators and/or institutions that is generally formalized with specified terms and conditions.

Continuation Project A project approved for multiple-year funding, although funds are typically committed only one year at a time. At the end of the initial budget period, progress on the project is assessed. If satisfactory, an award is made for the next budget period, subject to the availability of funds. Continuation projects do not compete with new project proposals and are not subjected to peer review beyond the initial project approval.

Contract A mechanism for procurement of a product or service with specific obligations for both sponsor and recipient. Typically, a research topic and the methods for conducting the research are specified in detail by the sponsor, although some sponsors award contracts in response to unsolicited proposals.

Contract/Grant Officer A sponsor's designated individual who is officially responsible for the business management aspects of a particular grant, cooperative agreement, or contract. Serving as the counterpart to the business officer of the grantee/contractor organization, the grant/contract officer is responsible for all business management matters associated with the review, negotiation, award, and administration of a grant or contract and interprets the associated administration policies, regulations, and provisions.

Cooperative Agreement An award similar to a grant, but in which the sponsor's staff may be actively involved in proposal preparation, and anticipates having substantial involvement in research activities once the award has been made.

COS Community of Science

Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Federally mandated accounting standards intended to ensure uniformity in budgeting and spending funds.

Cost-Reimbursement Type Contract/Grant A contract/grant for which the sponsor pays for the full costs incurred in the conduct of the work up to an agreed-upon amount.

Cost-Sharing A general term, used as a noun or adjective, that can describe virtually any type of arrangement in which more than one party supports research, equipment acquisition, demonstration projects, programs, institutions. Example: A university receives a grant for a project estimated to have a total cost of $100,000. The sponsor agrees to pay 75% ($75,000) and the university agrees to pay 25% ($25,000). The $25,000 is the cost-sharing component.

CRADA or CRDA Cooperative Research and Development Agreement

Crowdfunding (alternately crowd financing, equity crowdfunding or hyper funding) describes the collective cooperation, attention, and trust by people who network and pool their resources, usually via the Internet, to support efforts initiated by other people or organizations.

CSR Center for Scientific Review (NIH)

 

D

DAR Defense Acquisition Regulations

DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

DED Department of Education

Defense Acquisition Regulations (DAR) The source regulations for research projects sponsored by the Department of Defense.

DFARS Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement

DHHS Department of Health and Human Services

Direct Costs Clearly identifiable costs related to a specific project. General categories of direct costs include but are not limited to salaries and wages, fringe benefits, supplies, contractual services, travel and communication, equipment, and computer use.

DOD Department of Defense (includes Air Force, Army, ARPA, and Navy)

DOE Department of Energy

DOI Department of Interior

Donation Transfer of equipment, money, goods, services, and property with or without specifications as to its use. Sometimes donation is used to designate contributions that are made with more specific intent than is usually the case with a gift, but the two terms are often used interchangeably.

DOT Department of Transportation

 

E

Encumbrance Funds that have been set aside or "claimed" for projected expenses pending actual expenditure of the funds.

Endowment A fund usually in the form of an income-generating investment, established to provide long-term support for faculty/research positions, e.g., endowed chair.

EPA Environmental Protection Agency

Expiration Date The date signifying the end of the performance period, as indicated on the Notice of Grant Award.

Extension An additional period of time given by the sponsor to an organization for the completion of work on an approved grant or contract. An extension allows previously allocated funds to be spent after the original expiration date.

 

F

F&A Costs Facilities and Administrative Costs. Synonymous with Indirect Costs.

FAA Federal Aviation Administration

Facilities and Administrative (F&A) Costs Costs that are incurred for common or joint objectives and, therefore, cannot be identified readily and specifically with a particular sponsored project, an instructional activity, or any other institutional activity. Synonymous with Indirect Costs.

FAR Federal Acquisition Regulations

FDA Food and Drug Administration

FDP Federal Demonstration Partnership

FedBiz Opps Formerly the Commerce Business Daily (CBD). FedBiz Opps is a daily list of US Government procurement invitations, contract awards, subcontracting leads, sales of surplus property and foreign business opportunities.

Final Report The final technical or financial report required by the sponsor to complete a research project.

FirstGov FirstGov is a public-private partnership, led by a cross-agency board and administered by the Office of FirstGov in the General Services Administration's Office of Government wide Policy. Launched in September 2000, it is the only official U.S. Government portal to 47 million pages of government information, services, and online transactions. The site offers a search engine that searches every word of every U.S. government document. FirstGov.gov also features a topical index, online transactions, links to state and local government, options to contact the government, and other tools.

Fiscal Year (FY) Any twelve-month period for which annual accounts are kept (at Cameron University, July 1 through June 30).

Fixed-Price (FP) Contract/Grant A contract/grant for which one party pays the other party a predetermined price, regardless of actual costs, for services rendered.

FOIA Freedom of Information Act

FR Federal Register

Fringe Benefits Employee benefits paid by the employer, e.g., FICA, Worker's Compensation, Withholding Tax, Insurance, etc.

Funding Cycle Range of time during which proposals are accepted, reviewed, and funds are awarded. If a sponsor has standing proposal review committees or boards that meet at specified times during the year, application deadlines are set to correspond with those meetings. For some sponsors, if proposals are received too late to be considered in the current funding cycle, they may be held over for the next review meeting, i.e., National Science Foundation's Target Dates.

FY Fiscal Year

FP Fixed Price

 

G

Gift Gifts and bequests are awards given with few or no conditions specified. Gifts may be provided to establish an endowment or to provide direct support for existing programs. Frequently, gifts are used to support developing programs for which other funding is not available. The unique flexibility, or lack of restrictions, makes gifts attractive sources of support.

GPG Grant Proposal Guide (NSF)

Grant A type of financial assistance awarded to an organization for the conduct of research or other program as specified in an approved proposal.

Grants.gov Grants.gov allows organizations to electronically find and apply for competitive grant opportunities from all Federal grant-making agencies. Grants.gov is the single access point for over 900 grant programs offered by the 26 Federal grant-making agencies. All Federal grant applications will soon require submission through the grants.gov web site.

Grant/Contract Officer A sponsor's designated individual who is officially responsible for the business management aspects of a particular grant, cooperative agreement, or contract. Serving as the counterpart to the business officer of the grantee/contractor organization, the grant/contract officer is responsible for all business management matters associated with the review, negotiation, award, and administration of a grant or contract and interprets the associated administration policies regulations, and provisions.

GSA Government Services Administration

 

H

HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

 

I

IBA Institutional Biosafety Committee

IC Indirect Cost

ICR Indirect Cost Recovery

IDC Indirect Costs

IFB Invitation for Bid

In-Kind Contributions or assistance in a form other than money. Equipment, materials, or services of recognized value that are offered in lieu of cash.

Indirect Costs Costs related to expenses incurred in conducting or supporting research or other externally-funded activities but not directly attributable to a specific project. General categories of indirect costs include general administration (accounting, payroll, purchasing, etc.), sponsored project administration, plant operation and maintenance, library expenses, departmental administration expenses, depreciation or use allowance for buildings and equipment, and student administration and services. Synonymous with Facilities and Administrative Costs (F&A). More information.

Indirect Cost Rate The rate Cameron University can charge for indirect costs on grant proposals. Cameron University's federal negotiated indirect cost rate is 49% of salaries (not including fringe).

Invitation for Bid (IFB) A solicitation issued to prospective bidders. An IFB describes what is required and how the bidders will be evaluated. Award is based on the lowest bid. Negotiations are not conducted.

Investigator-Initiated Proposal A proposal submitted to a sponsor that is not in response to an RFP, RFA, or a specific program announcement.

IRB Institutional Review Board

 

J

 

K

Key Personnel The personnel considered to be of primary importance to the successful conduct of a research project.

 

L

 

M

MTDC Modified Total Direct Costs

Matching Grant A grant that requires a specified portion of the cost of a supported item of equipment or project be obtained from other sources. The required match may be more or less than the amount of the grant. Some matching grants require that the additional funds be obtained from sources outside the recipient organization. Matching grants are very common in the sciences, especially for equipment.

Misconduct in Science Fabrication, plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research. It does not include honest error or honest differences in interpretations or judgments of data.

Mission A sponsor's stated purpose, which is designed to address a specified set of problems. Almost all federal research agencies are designated as mission agencies.

Modification An award document that modifies any aspect of an existing award.

 

N

NACUBO National Association of College and University Business Officers

NAS National Academy of Sciences

NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NCI National Cancer Institute (NIH)

NCI National Cancer Institute Research Resources (NIH)

NCURA National Council of University Research Administrators

NEA National Endowment for the Arts

NEH National Endowment for the Humanities

NEI National Eye Institute (NIH)

New Award An award not previously awarded or a renewal or continuation award treated as a new award by the sponsor.

New and Competing Proposals Proposals that are submitted for the first time or ongoing projects that must recompete for funding prior to expiration of the original award.

NHLBI National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH)

NIA National Institute on Aging (NIH)

NIAAA National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIH)

NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH)

NIAMS National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH)

NICHD National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NIH)

NIDA  National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH)

NIDCD National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIH)

NIDDK National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH)

NIDCR National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIH)

NIEHS National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIH)

NIGMS National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIH)

NIH National Institutes of Health

NHGRI National Human Genome Research Institute (NIH)

NIMH National Institute of Mental Health (NIH)

NINDS National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NIH)

NINR National Institute for Nursing Research (NIH)

NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology

No Cost Time Extension An extension of the period of performance beyond the expiration data to allow the principal investigator to finish a project. Usually, no additional costs are provided.

Notice of Grant Award The legally binding document that serves as a notification to the recipient and others that a grant or cooperative agreement has been made; contains or references all terms of the award; and documents the obligation of funds.

NSF National Science Foundation

 

O

OAC Oklahoma Arts Council

OCAST Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science & Technology

OFPP Office of Federal Procurement Policy

Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education The Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education is the state's legal structure for providing public education at the collegiate level. It is a coordinated system of colleges and universities located throughout the state. There are currently twenty-five institutions in the Oklahoma State System of Higher Education, including two comprehensive graduate universities, eight regional universities, three special-purpose universities and twelve two-year colleges.

OLAW Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare

OMB Office of Management and Budget

OMB Circulars Regulatory circulars issued by the Office of Management & Budget (OMB). Definitions included in OMB Circulars A-21, 110, 122, 128 and 133.

ONR Office of Naval Research

 

P

Peer Review A system using reviewers who are the professional equals of the principal investigator or program director who is to be responsible for directing or conducting the proposed project. It is a form of objective review. Peer review is legislatively mandated in some programs and in other programs is administratively required.

PHS Public Health Service

PI Principal Investigator

PO Purchase Order

Post-Award A post-award activity is any process associated with a grant that has already been funded. These activities include the tracking of expenditures, reporting, and close out.

Pre-Award A pre-award activity is any activity in the proposal development process that takes place before the grant is submitted and any funds are awarded.

Pre-Proposal A brief description, usually 2-10 pages, of research plans and estimated budget that is sometimes submitted to determine the interest of a particular sponsor prior to submission of a formal proposal.

Principal Investigator (PI) The individual responsible for the conduct of research or other activity described in a proposal for an award.

Prior Approval The requirement for written documentation of permission to use project funds for purposes not in the approved budget, or to change aspects of the program from those originally planned and approved. Prior approval must be obtained before the performance of the act that requires such approval under the terms of the agreement.

Priority Score A score derived from the rating given a research proposal by each member on a review committee. It is used to help determine which approved proposals will be granted awards, based on funds available.

Program Announcement Describes existence of a research opportunity. It may describe new or expanded interest in a particular extramural program or be a reminder of a continuing interest in an extramural program.

Program/Project Officer A sponsor's designated individual officially responsible for the technical, scientific, or programmatic aspects of a particular grant, cooperative agreement, or contract. Serving as the counterpart to the principal investigator/project director of the grantee/contractor organization, the program/project officer deals with the grantee/contractor organization staff to assure programmatic progress.

Progress Report Periodic, scheduled reports required by the sponsor summarizing research progress to date.

Project Period (PP) The total time for which support of a project has been programmatically approved. A project period may consist of one or more budget periods.

Proposal An application for funding that contains all information necessary to describe project plans, staff capabilities, and funds requested. Formal proposals are officially approved and submitted by an organization in the name of a principal investigator.

 

Q

 

R

RCR Responsible Conduct of Research

RFA Request for Applications

RFP Request for Proposal

RFQ Request for Quote

Rebudget The act of amending the budget buy moving funds from one category or line item to another.

Regulations The contractual rules and procedures governing sponsored research projects.

Release Time Reassigned time from normal teaching responsibilities granted to faculty for a specified time period to pursue approved academic projects.

Renewal A competitively reviewed proposal requesting additional funds extending the scope of work beyond the current project period.

Request for Applications (RFA) Announcements that indicate the availability of funds for a topic of specific interest to a sponsor. Specific grant announcements may be published in the Federal Register and/or specific sponsor publications.

Request for Proposal (RFP) Announcements that specify a topic of research, methods to be used, product to be delivered, and appropriate applicants sought. Specific grant announcements may be published in the Federal Register and/or specific sponsor publications.

Revision A modified and resubmitted request for funding for a project that was previously not funded either because it was denied by the sponsor or withdrawn by the principal investigator.

 

S

S&W Salaries and Wages

Salaries and Wages (S&W) Payments made to employees of the institution for work performed.

SBA Small Business Administration

SBIR Small Business Innovative Research

Scope of Work The description of the work to be performed and completed on a research project.

Senior Personnel Professional personnel who are responsible for the scientific or technical direction of project.

Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Agency administered programs supported by ear-marked federal funds, making grants to small business entities.

Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Grant applications and/or programs to fund small business "teamed" with research institutions.

SMARTS SPIN Matching And Researcher Transmittal System

SPIN Sponsored Programs Information Network

Sponsor The organization that funds a research project.

Sponsored Programs Information Network (SPIN) An on-line search system similar to Community of Science available by subscription for research opportunities developed by the InfoEd.

SRA Society of Research Administrators

SSA Social Security Administration

Stipend At Cameron University, stipends are paid to participants of a program, workshop, or approved grant activity.

Subcontract, Subgrant, or Subagreement A document written under the authority of, and consistent with the terms and conditions of an award (a grant, contract or cooperative agreement), that transfers a portion of the research or substantive effort of the prime award to another institution or organization.

Subs Short for subcontractors.

Supplemental (Rebudgeting or Modification) Proposal A request to the sponsor for additional funds for an ongoing project during the previously approved performance period. A supplemental proposal may result from increased costs, modifications in design, or a desire to add a closely related component to the ongoing project.

 

T

TDT Total Direct Costs

Terms of Award All legal requirements imposed on an agreement by the sponsor, whether by statute, regulation(s), or terms in the award document.

Total Direct Costs (TDC) The total of all direct costs of a project.

Total Project Costs The total allowable direct and indirect costs incurred by the institution to carry out an approved project or activity.

 

U

Unrestricted Funds Monies with no requirements or restrictions as to use or disposition. Grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements are considered to be restricted funds, while gifts are usually considered unrestricted funds.

Unsolicited Proposals Proposals submitted to a sponsor that are not in response to an RFP, RFA, or program announcement.

USDA United States Department of Agriculture

 

V

VA Veterans Administration

VAH Veterans Administration Hospital

 

W

X

Y

Z

Graybill Courtyard